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Old 17-09-2021, 11:04 AM
ajay00 ajay00 is offline
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Evolution of Hindu-Arabic numeral system...

A great article by HistoryExtra , on the Hindu-Arabic numeral system's evolution down the centuries.

https://www.historyextra.com/period/...newtab-intl-en

(HistoryExtra is the official website for BBC History Magazine and BBC History Revealed. )

Quote:
It is impossible today to imagine a world without what are known as Hindu-Arabic numerals. These nine symbols or digits (1 to 9) and zero (0) – crucially, together with the system of arranging them in place value – are at the very heart of so much of modern life. Without them there would be no computers and no space travel. Indeed, there would be precious little science, technology or medicine of any kind, to say nothing of mathematics itself.

Try to add LIX to VII and you’ll quickly understand why maths would not have evolved far with the Roman numeric system.

~ Violet Moller (historian, writer)
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Old 17-09-2021, 11:33 AM
Uma Uma is offline
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Mayans

Thanks for the article but it excludes other civilizations like the Mayans or Olmecs who also invented the zero

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maya_numerals
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Old 19-09-2021, 10:10 AM
Altair Altair is offline
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Quote:
It is impossible today to imagine a world without what are known as Hindu-Arabic numerals. These nine symbols or digits (1 to 9) and zero (0) – crucially, together with the system of arranging them in place value – are at the very heart of so much of modern life. Without them there would be no computers and no space travel. Indeed, there would be precious little science, technology or medicine of any kind, to say nothing of mathematics itself.

Give credit where credit's due, but little doubt the BBC would not raise a question against it. They are really into the atheistic, humanist mindset where pre-modernity is viewed as ''ignorant and superstitious'', even when technological progress occurred. Whilst the BBC appears to be descriptive here, they can't really shake of their bias. It's subtle but noticeable (''there would be precious little science'' is a matter of perspective and ''precious little'' smacks of a normative statement). If you were to ask for more information, it would become even more obvious.
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Old 20-09-2021, 08:06 AM
Busby Busby is offline
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If there has ever been a 'time' when the universe didn't exist meaning a time when there was nothing(ness) and that is something we don't know, just as we don't know if the universe has always been 'here'.
But in complete nothingness numbers exist. Mathematical forms are abstracts and abstracts don't need 'stuff' to exist. The immediate way of acknowledging an abstract is by appreciating beauty. Beauty can take on many forms.
Why something (whatever) should be beautiful we don't know, A hippo isn't beautiful to us but to a male hippo a female is an enticing creature.

In an imagined vacuum (a state or condition of emptiness/nothingness) mathematical forms exist. The most basic of these is a circle, then we have squares, oblongs, triangles and so on. All of these abstracts are built on numbers - it follows that the universe itself is created by the formation of numbers into patterns.

We call these patterns atoms/molecules/stuff, the universe has a background of numbers. And the universe exists by transferring the basic form from abstraction into movement.

The basic form is O. O is a form with an inside and an outside. Or if you like with a mind and with a body. That's all there is. It's that simple.
Everything in the universe follows this form, everything turns, dies, and starts again. This process has been given various names; from reincarnation to re-cycling - recycling is something nature does without our help - the way it has chosen is called the passing of time.

The universe also recycles, it dies and is reborn.
It just takes a little while.
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The constantly promoted belief (induced by religions) that we are born to be good and obey (in order to enter heaven) is a tragic error in the concept of the universe's plan and an insult to mankind's intellect.


What does a frog in a pond know of the world's oceans??
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